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Natural Sciences Courses and Manuals



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Invertebrate Animals


Eng Course- The Philosophy of Nature- Download Free PDF


Table of Contents The Philosophy of Nature.....................................................................1 Georg Hegel............................................................................1 Preliminary Concepts.............................................................................1 I. Mathematics........................................................................................2 II....
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Eng Course- All about Crocodiles- Download Free PDF


Estuarine (saltwater) crocodiles are the world’s largest reptiles and Australia’s largest estuarine and freshwater predator. They use stillness and camouflage to hide and underwater stealth and lightening reflexes to kill. DOWNLOAD COUR...
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Eng Course- All about Hurricanes- Download Free PDF


    Hurricane Dangers When  a  hurricane  makes  landfall,  it  can  be  very  dangerous  along coastlines because of a storm surge, where ocean waters rush onto land. When  this  is  combined  with  heavy  rainfall,  there  can  be...
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Eng Course- All about The Bermuda Triangle- Download Free PDF


The Bermuda Triangle is a stretch of the Atlantic Ocean bordered by a line from Florida to the islands of Bermuda, to Puerto Rico, and then back to Florida.  It is one of the biggest mysteries of our time that isn't really a mystery. The term "Bermuda Triangle" was first used in an article written by Vincent H. Gaddis for Argosy magazine...
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Eng Course- All about Mars Planet- Download Free PDF


Mars is one of the most fascinating objects visible in our night sky. Called the Red Planet, Mars is smaller than Earth and has an atmosphere consisting mainly of carbon dioxide.  The red color comes from oxidized iron in the top soil layer.  Mars has two moons, named Phobos and Deimos, meaning fear and dread, respectively....
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Eng Course- Americas: River and Lake Ice - Download Free PDF


Freshwater ice is a major component of the terrestrial cryosphere. It affects an extensive portion of the global hydrologic system, including the rivers and lakes found throughout high-latitude and alpine areas, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. Seasonal ice cover can develop as far south as 33°N in North America and 26°N in Eurasia producing...
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Eng Course- All about Dinosaurs- Download Free PDF


Table of Contents  Goals for Visit                    1 State Standards  Kindergarten               3 State Standards  1 st   Grade                5 State Standards  2 nd   Grade  ...
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Eng Course- All about Stratospheric Ozone- Download Free PDF


Contents About This Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Achievements in Ozone Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Then and Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 The Technology Revolution . . . . . . . . . . ....
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Eng Course- All about Plants & Seeds- Download Free PDF


Human beings, other animals and plants are the living organisms that exist on earth. Plants are the only organisms able to sustain themselves by producing their own food. In turn, they provide food for animals and humans, through the food chain. Almost all plants have one common characteristic making them different from animals. Plants,...
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Eng Course- All about Birds- Download Free PDF


From the outset of LIFE-Nature the European Commission developed a specific strategy to ensure that the limited financial resources were dedicated to actions aimed at conserving the most threatened species. This involved establishing a restricted list of the most endangered bird species considered as priority for LIFE-Nature funding.  This...
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Eng Course- Humpback Whales- Download Free PDF


Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species–habitat relationships. We investigated...
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Eng Course- All about Melting icecaps- Download Free PDF


Introduction [2] The onset of melt and melt season length are important variables for understanding the Arctic climate system. Given the recent large losses of the Arctic summer sea ice cover [Stroeve et al., 2005, 2008] it has become critical to investigate the causes of the widespread decline in Arctic sea ice and the consequences of...
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Eng Course- All about BATS- Download Free PDF


Bats are beneficial. They eat insects and pollinate plants and play an important role in keeping ecosystems healthy and in balance. Many myths are associated with bats, such as the saying “blind as a bat.”  This isn’t true. Bats  can see quite well. Another myth is that bats  get caught in people’s hair. They don’t.  Nor...
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Eng Course- All about Tsunamis- Download Free PDF


I.  Tsunami = Killer Wave? II.  Characteristics of Tsunamis III.  Tsunami Generation IV.  Tsunami Propagation V.  Tsunami Shoaling VI.  Tsunami Hazard Estimation VII.  Tsunami Forecasting Characteristics of Tsunamis A. Tsunami Velocity, Wavelength, and Period  This article reviews classical tsunami...
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Eng Course- All about Planet Mercury- Download Free PDF


Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is the second smallest planet in the solar system, Pluto being the smallest. If  Earth  were  the  size  of  a  baseball  Mercury would be a golf ball. Because Mercury is so close to the Sun, temperatures, during the day, can reach a scorching 425°C… hum! You...
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Eng Course- All about Black Holes- Download Free PDF


The most common way for a black hole to form is probably in a supernova, an exploding star. When a star with about 25 times the mass of the Sun ends its life, it explodes. The outer part of the star screams outward at high speed, but the inner part of the star, its core, collapses down. If there is enough mass, the gravity of the collapsing...
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Eng Course- All about the Haiti Earthquake- Download Free PDF


The largest earthquake ever recorded in Haiti devastated parts of the country, including the capital, on January 12, 2010. The quake, centered about 15 miles southwest of Port-au-Prince, had a magnitude of 7.0. A series of strong aftershocks followed. Witnesses are describing the damage as severe and catastrophic. Communication services...
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Eng Course- All about The Great White Shark- Download Free PDF


Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are top order predators that may reach lengths of almost 7 metres. They are, however, particularly vulnerable to exploitation due to their slow growth, late maturation, long generation period of 23 years, small litter size and low reproductive capacity. Where information is available, it shows...
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Eng Course- All about Our Solar System- Download Free PDF


Our solar system’s central star, the Sun, has inspired mythological stories in cultures around the world, including those of the ancient Egyptians, the Aztecs of México, Native American tribes of North America and Canada, the Chinese, and many others.  A number of ancient cultures built stone structures or modified  natural rock...
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Eng Course- All about The Polar Bear- Download Free PDF


Table of Contents Introduction Distribution Description Genetics Evolution Feeding Habits Movements Denning Physiology Reproduction Survival Age Estimation Management and Conservation Research Needs Literature Cited Introduction About the Author Steven C. Amstrup is a Research Wildlife Biologist with the Unites States Geological Survey...
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Eng Course- All about Floods- Download Free PDF


Floods are one of the most common hazards in the U.S. However, all floods are not alike.  Riverine floods develop slowly, sometimes over a period of days. Flash floods can develop quickly, sometimes in just a few minutes, without any visible signs of rain. Flash floods often have a dangerous wall of roaring water that carries a deadly...
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Eng Course- All about Tornadoes- Download Free PDF


Why talk about tornadoes? Tornadoes have been reported in every state, and though they generally occur during spring and summer, they can happen any time of the year. While tornadoes can occur at any time of the day or night, they are most likely to occur between 3:00 and 9:00 p.m. There are no areas immune to tornadoes; they have been...
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Eng Course- All about The Mammoth Story- Download Free PDF


Elephants are the largest living land mammals. There have been more than 500 different kinds of elephants on the Earth at various times over  the last 55 million years. Only two of these remain alive today: the African Elephant and the Asian (or Indian) Elephant. They are restricted to tropical climates, but other species, living...
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Eng Course- All about The Orca Whale - Download Free PDF


What Is An Orca Whale? Orca whales are the largest member of the dolphin family. They are a top predator in all the oceans of the world. Orcas (Orcinus orca) are well known for their strong family ties and often live together in family groups. They are noted for their strength, beauty and intelligence. DOWNLOAD COUR...
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Eng Course- All About The Begal Tiger- Download Free PDF

DOWNLOAD COURSE CONTENTS PREFACE                               ix SUMMARY                               x-xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                  ...


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Eng Course- All About Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan- Download Free PDF

Collection of information about the Tohoku-Taiheiyou-Oki earthq p , quake und tsunami in Japan on March 11, 2011. ► Main Idea ƒ Provide an impression of the sequence of events. ƒ Understand Understand consequences for nuclear power plants consequences for nuclear power plants. ► All data have principally not yet been verified finally, but...
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