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Eng Course- All About The Begal Tiger- Download Free PDF


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CONTENTS
PREFACE                               ix
SUMMARY                               x-xi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                           xii-xiii
CHAPTER 1     INTRODUCTION             1-39
1.1 General                1
1.2 Tiger in the Human Cultures             3
1.3 Study Species: Tiger Panthera tigris            6
1.3.1 Origin              6
1.3.2 Taxonomy              8
1.3.3 Distribution              9
1.3.3.1    Global Distribution           9
1.3.3.2    Distribution in Bangladesh          10
1.3.4 Population Density             14
1.3.4.1    Global Population Density          14
1.3.4.2    Population Density in Bangladesh         17
1.3.5 Morphology              18
1.3.6 Biology              20
1.3.7 Ecology and Behaviour             21
1.3.8 Threats              26
1.3.8.1    Illegal Hunting and Poaching          27
1.3.8.2    Prey Depletion            29
1.3.8.3    Habitat Loss, Degradation and Fragmentation 30
1.3.8.4    Weak Law Enforcement           31
1.3.8.5    Inbreeding and Genetic Threat          31
1.3.8.6    Natural Disaster            32
1.3.9 Conservation              32
1.3.9.1    Global Conservation Efforts          32
1.3.9.2    Conservation Efforts in Bangladesh         35
1.4 Need and Objectives of This Research            37
1.4.1 Need of This Research            37
1.4.2 Objectives               39
CHAPTER 2     STUDY AREA AND GENERAL METHODS           40-71
2.1    Study Area               40
2.1.1 Introduction              40
2.1.2 Bangladesh               40
2.1.3 Sundarbans               44
2.1.3.1    Climate             49
2.1.3.2    Biodiversity            51
2.1.3.3    Flagship and Threatened Species          54
2.1.3.4    Human Life            56
2.1.3.5    Threats             57
2.1.3.6    Conservation            60 vi
2.2 General Methods              63
2.2.1 Introduction              63
2.2.2 Logistic Setup             63
2.2.3 Research Team Formation            64
2.2.4 Reconnaissance Survey            65
2.2.5 Work Schedule             66
2.2.6 Data Collection             68
2.2.6.1    Line-transect Sampling for Prey          68
2.2.6.2    Scat Analysis and Kill Study          68
2.2.6.3    Line-transect Sampling for Tiger Signs          69
2.2.6.4    Male-female and Mother-cub(s) Observations 69
2.2.6.5    Interviewing, Forest Department Records and  
               Newspaper Reports; Protein Intake Survey      70
2.2.7 Data Analysis             70
CHAPTER 3     PREY POPULATION STRUCTURE AND DENSITY        72-97
3.1    Introduction               72
3.2    Methods               73
3.2.1 Prey Grouping Tendencies, Age-sex Classes,
            Group Size, Group Density and Individual Density         73
3.2.2 Prey Biomass Density            77
3.2.3 Tiger Density             78
3.3    Results                79
3.3.1 Prey Grouping Tendencies             79
3.3.2 Prey Age-sex Classes             80
3.3.3 Prey Group Size, Group Density and Individual         81
3.3.4 Prey Biomass Density             83
3.3.5 Tiger Density             85
3.4    Discussion               85
3.4.1 Prey Grouping Tendencies             85
3.4.2 Prey Age-sex Classes             87
3.4.3 Dominant Prey Species            88
3.4.4 Comparison of Prey Density in Some Tiger Ranges        89
3.4.5 Comparison of Prey Density Estimates in the
            Bangladesh Sundarbans                 91
3.4.6 Correlation Between Prey Density and Tiger Density     93
3.4.7 Comparison of Tiger Density Estimates in the
            Bangladesh Sundarbans            94
3.5    Summary               96
CHAPTER 4     PREY SELECTION             98-123
4.1    Introduction               98
4.2    Methods                    99
4.2.1 Scat Analysis              99
4.2.2 Prey Selectivity Index            102
4.2.3 Kill Study              102 vii
4.3    Results                103
4.3.1 Scat Volume and Weight, and Minimum Sample Size    103
4.3.2 Prey Selection             105
4.3.3 Non-food Items in Scats            108
4.3.4 Prey Abundance Versus Prey Selection          109
4.3.5 Age and Health of Kills            111
4.3.6 Abundance and Selection of Spotted Deer
            in Different Age Classes            112
4.4    Discussion               113
4.4.1 Prey Selection              113  
4.4.2 Non-food Items in Scats            118
4.4.3 Prey Abundance Versus Prey Selection          119
4.4.4 Selectivity for Age-sex Classes           121
4.5    Summary               122
CHAPTER 5     RELATIVE HABITAT USE            124-142
5.1    Introduction               124
5.2    Methods                  126  
5.3    Results                130
5.3.1 Relative Habitat Use             130
5.3.2 Scratches on Different Tree Species                   137
5.4    Discussion               138
5.4.1 Relative Habitat Use             138
5.4.2 Scratches on Different Tree Species                      140
5.5    Summary               141
CHAPTER 6     BREEDING AND LITTER SIZE           143-153
6.1    Introduction               143
6.2    Methods               144
6.3    Results                147
6.4 Discussion               149
6.5 Summary               153
CHAPTER 7     TIGER-HUMAN INTERACTIONS          154-189
7.1    Introduction               154
7.2    Methods               156
7.2.1 Interviewing Local People, Newspaper Reports and
            Forest Department Records            156
7.2.2 Consumption of Tiger Prey by Local People         158
7.3    Results                159
7.3.1 Interviewing Local People, Newspaper Reports and
            Forest Department Records            159
7.3.1.1    Tigers Killed by People                   159
7.3.1.2    People Killed or Injured by Tigers         164
7.3.1.3    Protection From the Tiger           167
7.3.1.4    Where Do People See the Tiger?          169
7.3.1.5    Condition of Sighted Wild Tigers          170
7.3.1.6    Public Knowledge on
               Bangladesh Wildlife Act 1974          170 viii
7.3.1.7    Public Belief on the Medicinal Use of
               Tiger Parts             171
7.3.1.8    Public Opinion on Tiger Conservation         171
7.3.2 Consumption of Tiger Prey by Local People         172
7.4    Discussion               176      
7.4.1    Tigers Killed by People            176
7.4.2    People Killed or Injured by Tigers           179
7.4.3    Public Knowledge and Belief           185
7.4.4    Consumption of Tiger Prey by Local People         186
7.5    Summary               188
CHAPTER 8     CONCLUDING DISCUSSION           190-199
8.1 Introduction               190
8.2 Conclusions               190
8.2.1 Prey Population Structure and Density          190    
8.2.2 Prey Selection             192
8.2.3 Relative Habitat Use             192
8.2.4 Breeding and Litter Size            193
8.2.5 Tiger-human Interactions            193
8.2.6 Comparative Issues             195
8.3 Conservation Implications             195
8.4 Future Research              198
REFERENCES                             200-236
APPENDICES                             237-297
Appendix I   Status and distribution of wild cats and primates in Bangladesh. 237
Appendix II     Food habit of the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis in the
  Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary of Bangladesh.         250
Appendix III   An article entitled ‘The Sundarbans’.           255      
Appendix IV   An article entitled ‘Mysterious Tigers of the Sundarbans’.         263
Appendix V   Tiger sightings during fieldwork (September 2001-
                          February 2003) in the Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary.       267
Appendix VI   The birds of the Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary
                          of Bangladesh.              271
Appendix VII   List of some common plants of the Sundarbans.          289
Appendix VIII List of amphibians, reptiles and mammals recorded during
                          the fieldwork (September 2001-February 2003) in the
                          Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary, together with their
                          respective status and primary habitat           291
Appendix IX    The occurrence of an ‘extinct’ hog deer in Bangladesh.          294
Appendix X   A sample of interview sheet, similar to one in Bengali
                          used in the Sundarbans and adjacent areas in order to
                          interview local people and record information on
                          different aspects of tiger-human interactions.          296
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