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Eng Course- FRENCH GRAMMAR- Download Free PDF


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Contents:
Guide for the user xi
Glossary of key grammatical terms xiv
Acknowledgements xx
Acknowledgements for the second edition xxi
1 Nouns 1
1.1 Types of noun 1
1.2 Gender 5
1.3 Number 17
2 Determiners 23
2.1 Articles 23
2.2 Typical use of the definite article 24
2.3 Typical use of the indefinite article 29
2.4 The partitive article: du, de l', de la, des 32
2.5 Use of indefinite and partitive articles after the negative
forms ne... pas, ne... jamais, ne... plus, ne... guère 33
2.6 Omission of the article 34
2.7 Demonstrative determiners 37
2.8 Possessive determiners 39
3 Personal and impersonal pronouns 40
3.1 Subject pronouns 40
3.2 Object pronouns 53
3.3 Stressed pronouns 71
3.4 Demonstrative pronouns 75
3.5 Possessive pronouns 76
4 Adjectives 78
4.1 Adjectives modifying the noun 78
4.2 Adjectives which follow verbs or verbal expressions 83
4.3 Adjectives with complements 84
4.4 Indefinite and negative noun phrases with adjective
complements 85
4.5 Adjectives used as nouns 85
4.6 Adjectives used as adverbs 86
4.7 Masculine and feminine forms of adjectives 86
4.8 Plural forms of adjectives 89
4.9 Adjective agreement with nouns 91 vi Contents
4.10 Invariable adjectives 91
4.11 Compound adjectives 92
4.12 Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives 93
4.13 Subjunctive versus indicative in clauses dependent
on a superlative adjective 96
4.14 Absolute use of the superlative 97
5 Adverbs 98
5.1 Function of adverbs 98
5.2 Formation of adverbs with the ending -ment 98
5.3 Adjectives used as adverbs without addition of -ment 101
5.4 Phrases used as adverbs 102
5.5 English and French adverb formation 104
5.6 Types of adverbs 104
5.7 Location of adverbs 122
6 Numbers, measurements, time and quantifiers 126
6.1 Cardinal numbers 126
6.2 Ordinal numbers 133
6.3 Fractions 134
6.4 Some differences in the use of cardinal and ordinal numbers
in French and English 135
6.5 Measurements and comparisons 138
6.6 Dates, days, years 140
6.7 Clock time 142
6.8 Money 143
6.9 Quantifiers 143
7 Verb forms 147
7.1 Introduction 147
7.2 Conjugations 148
7.3 Easy ways of generating some parts of the paradigms 149
7.4 Changes in the stem form of some -er conjugation verbs 152
7.5 Verbs whose stems end in c- or g- 153
7.6 Verb paradigms 154
8 Verb constructions 186
8.1 Relations between verbs and their complements 186
8.2 Intransitive constructions 186
8.3 Directly transitive verbs 188
8.4 Indirectly transitive verbs 190
8.5 Ditransitive verbs 192
8.6 The passive 194
8.7 Pronominal verbs 197
8.8 Impersonal verbs 204
8.9 Verbs which take noun + adjective or noun + noun complements 207 Contents vii
9 Verb and participle agreement
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
Subject-verb agreement
Agreement of the past participle with the subject of être
Agreement of the past participle of verbs conjugated with
avoir with a preceding direct object
Agreement of the past participle of pronominal verbs in
compound tenses
10 Tense
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
11 The
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
Introduction
The present
The past
The future
Other tenses indicating the time at which events occur
relative to other events
Combining tenses
Tenses in direct and reported descriptions of events
Tenses with si
subjunctive, modal verbs, exclamatives and imperatives
The attitude of the subject to events: the subjunctive
The use of devoir, pouvoir, savoir, falloir
The French equivalents of the English modal verbs: 'would',
'should', 'could', 'may', 'might', 'ought to', and 'must'
Exclamatives
Imperatives
12 The infinitive
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
Introduction: what are infinitives?
Infinitives as complements to other verbs
Verbs which take infinitive complements without a linking
preposition
Verbs which take infinitive complements preceded by the
preposition à
Verbs which take an infinitive complement preceded by de
Omission of objects before infinitives
Infinitives as complements to adjectives
Infinitives as complements to nouns
Infinitives in subordinate clauses
Infinitives as polite commands
Quick-reference index to verbs taking infinitive complements
13 Prepositions
13.1
13.2-
13.58
13.59
Introduction
Prepositions listed alphabetically from à to vers
French translations for common English prepositions
208
208
212
213
220
222
222
222
223
228
232
235
238
240
241
241
258
262
267
269
273
273
274
274
277
282
288
289
291
293
294
294
301
301
301
325 viii Contents
14 Question formation 332
14.1 Introduction 332
14.2 Yes/no questions 332
14.3 Information questions 336
14.4 Order of object pronouns in questions involving inversion 341
14.5 Order of negative particles in questions involving inversion 341
14.6 Use of question words and phrases: qui?, que?, quoi?, quel?,
de qui?, avec combien de? etc. 341
14.7 Indirect questions 346
15 Relative clauses 349
15.1 Introduction 349
15.2 Use of relative qui 350
15.3 Use of relative que 351
15.4 Preposition plus qui 352
15.5 Use of lequel in relative clauses 352
15.6 Use of dont, de qui, duquel/de laquelle/desquels/desquelles 354
15.7 The use of où as a relative pronoun 355
15.8 Use of relative quoi 356
15.9 Free relative clauses and the use of ce qui, ce que, ce dont, ce
à quoi, ce sur quoi, etc. 357
15.10 Translating 'whoever', 'whatever', 'wherever', 'whenever',
'however' 359
15.11 Indicative and subjunctive in relative clauses 361
16 Negation 365
16.1 Introduction 365
16.2 Location of sentence negators 365
16.3 Order of negators in multiple negation 368
16.4 Omission of ne in sentence negation 368
16.5 Order of negative elements in questions and imperatives 369
16.6 ne... pas 369
16.7 ne... que 373
16.8 ne... aucun(e), ne... nul(le) 373
16.9 ne... jamais 374
16.10 ne... plus 375
16.11 ne... guère 376
16.12 ne... rien 377
16.13 ne... personne 378
16.14 ne... ni... ni 379
16.15 sans used with other negators 380
16.16 ne used alone 380
17 Conjunctions and other linking constructions 382
17.1 Introduction 382
17.2 Coordinating conjunctions 382
17.3 Subordinating conjunctions 384 Contents ix
17.4 Conjunctions sometimes confused by English speakers 394
17.5 Repeated subordinating conjunctions 395
17.6 Subordinating conjunctions used with infinitive clauses 396
17.7 après avoir/ être + past participle linking an infinitive clause
to a main clause 397
17.8 Past participle phrases used as linkers 397
17.9 Present participles and gerunds 398
Appendix 402
Bibliography 405
Index 407
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