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FIRST AID 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PREFACE .............................................................. v
CHAPTER 1. FUNDAMENTAL CRITERIA FOR FIRST AID
1-1. General .................................................... 1-1
 1-2. Terminology .............................................. 1-2
 1-3. Understanding Vital Body Functions
 for First Aid............................................. 1-3
 1-4. Adverse Conditions...................................... 1-7
 1-5. Basics of First Aid....................................... 1-7
 1-6. Evaluating a Casualty ................................... 1-8
CHAPTER 2. BASIC MEASURES FOR FIRST AID
 2-1. General .................................................... 2-1
 Section I. Open the Airway and Restore Breathing............. 2-1
 2-2. Breathing Process........................................ 2-1
 2-3. Assessment of and Positioning the Casualty ........ 2-1
 2-4. Opening the Airway of an Unconscious or not
 Breathing Casualty..................................... 2-3
 2-5. Rescue Breathing (Artificial Respiration)............ 2-6
 2-6. Preliminary Steps—All Rescue Breathing
 Methods.................................................. 2-6
 2-7. Mouth-to-Mouth Method ............................... 2-7
 2-8. Mouth-to-Nose Method................................. 2-9
 2-9. Heartbeat .................................................. 2-9
 2-10. Airway Obstructions..................................... 2-10
 2-11. Opening the Obstructed Airway—Conscious
 Casualty.................................................. 2-11
 2-12. Opening the Obstructed Airway—Casualty Lying
 Down or Unconscious................................. 2-14

Section II. Stop the Bleeding and Protect the Wound ......... 2-18
2-13. General ................................................... 2-18
2-14. Clothing .................................................. 2-19
2-15. Entrance and Exit Wounds ........................... 2-19
2-16. Field Dressing........................................... 2-20
2-17. Manual Pressure ........................................ 2-21
2-18. Pressure Dressing ...................................... 2-22
2-19. Digital Pressure ......................................... 2-24
2-20. Tourniquet ............................................... 2-25
Section III. Check for Shock and Administer First
Aid Measures ........................................ 2-29
2-21. General ................................................... 2-29
2-22. Causes and Effects ..................................... 2-29
2-23. Signs and Symptoms of Shock ....................... 2-30
2-24. First Aid Measures for Shock ........................ 2-31
CHAPTER 3. FIRST AID FOR SPECIFIC INJURIES
3-1. General ................................................... 3-1
3-2. Head, Neck, and Facial Injuries ..................... 3-1
3-3. General First Aid Measures .......................... 3-2
3-4. Chest Wounds........................................... 3-4
3-5. First Aid for Chest Wounds .......................... 3-5
3-6. Abdominal Wounds.................................... 3-9
3-7. First Aid for Abdominal Wounds ................... 3-9
3-8. Burn Injuries ............................................ 3-12
3-9. First Aid for Burns..................................... 3-13
3-10. Dressings and Bandages............................... 3-16
3-11. Shoulder Bandage ...................................... 3-29
3-12. Elbow Bandage ......................................... 3-30
3-13. Hand Bandage ........................................... 3-30
3-14. Leg (Upper and Lower) Bandage.................... 3-33
3-15. Knee Bandage ........................................... 3-34
3-16. Foot Bandage............................................ 3-34
CHAPTER 4. FIRST AID FOR FRACTURES
4-1. General ................................................... 4-1
4-2. Kinds of Fractures...................................... 4-1
4-3. Signs and Symptoms of Fractures................... 4-2
4-4. Purposes of Immobilizing Fractures ................ 4-2
4-5. Splints, Padding, Bandages, Slings, and Swathes 4-2
4-6. Procedures for Splinting Suspected Fractures..... 4-3
4-7. Upper Extremity Fractures ........................... 4-9
4-8. Lower Extremity Fractures........................... 4-12

4-9. Jaw, Collarbone, and Shoulder Fractures.......... 4-15
4-10. Spinal Column Fractures.............................. 4-16
4-11. Neck Fractures .......................................... 4-18
CHAPTER 5. FIRST AID FOR CLIMATIC INJURIES
5-1. General ................................................... 5-1
5-2. Heat Injuries ............................................. 5-2
5-3. Cold Injuries ............................................ 5-7
CHAPTER 6. FIRST AID FOR BITES AND STINGS
6-1. General ................................................... 6-1
6-2. Types of Snakes ........................................ 6-1
6-3. Snakebites................................................ 6-5
6-4. Human or Animal Bites ............................... 6-7
6-5. Marine (Sea) Animals ................................. 6-8
6-6. Insect (Arthropod) Bites and Stings ................. 6-9
6-7. First Aid for Bites and Stings ........................ 6-12
CHAPTER 7. FIRST AID IN A NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND
CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT
7-1. General ................................................... 7-1
7-2. First Aid Materials ..................................... 7-1
7-3. Classification of Chemical and Biological
Agents ................................................. 7-2
7-4. Conditions for Masking Without Order or
Alarm.................................................. 7-3
7-5. First Aid for a Chemical Attack ..................... 7-4
7-6. Background Information on Nerve Agents ........ 7-5
7-7. Signs and Symptoms of Nerve Agent Poisoning . 7-7
7-8. First Aid for Nerve Agent Poisoning ............... 7-8
7-9. Blister Agents ........................................... 7-19
7-10. Choking Agents (Lung-Damaging Agents) ........ 7-21
7-11. Cyanogen (Blood) Agents............................. 7-22
7-12. Incapacitating Agents.................................. 7-23
7-13. Incendiaries.............................................. 7-24
7-14. Biological Agents and First Aid ..................... 7-25
7-15. Toxins .................................................... 7-25
7-16. Nuclear Detonation..................................... 7-27
CHAPTER 8. FIRST AID FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS
8-1. General ................................................... 8-1
8-2. Importance of Psychological First Aid ............. 8-1
8-3. Situations Requiring Psychological First Aid ..... 8-1

8-4. Interrelationship of Psychological and Physical
First Aid............................................... 8-2
8-5. Goals of Psychological First Aid .................... 8-2
8-6. Respect for Others’ Feelings ......................... 8-3
8-7. Emotional and Physical Disability................... 8-3
8-8. Combat and Other Operational Stress Reactions . 8-4
8-9. Reactions to Stress ..................................... 8-4
8-10. Severe Stress or Stress Reaction ..................... 8-6
8-11. Application of Psychological First Aid ............. 8-6
8-12. Reactions and Limitations............................. 8-8
8-13. Stress Reactions......................................... 8-9
APPENDIX A. FIRST AID CASE AND KITS, DRESSINGS, AND
BANDAGES
A-1. First Aid Case with Field Dressings and
Bandages.............................................. A-1
A-2. General Purpose First Aid Kits ...................... A-1
A-3. Dressings................................................. A-2
A-4. Standard Bandages ..................................... A-2
A-5. Triangular and Cravat (Swathe) Bandages......... A-2
APPENDIX B. RESCUE AND TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES
B-1. General ................................................... B-1
B-2. Principles of Rescue Operations ..................... B-1
B-3. Considerations .......................................... B-1
B-4. Plan of Action ........................................... B-2
B-5. Proper Handling of Casualties ....................... B-3
B-6. Positioning the Casualty ............................... B-4
B-7. Medical Evacuation and Transportation of
Casualties ............................................. B-5
B-8. Manual Carries ......................................... B-6
B-9. Improvised Litters...................................... B-26
GLOSSARY .................................................. Glossary-1
REFERENCES .................................................. References-1
INDEX .................................................. Index-1


PREFACE
This manual meets the first aid training needs of individual service
members. Because medical personnel will not always be readily available,
the nonmedical service members must rely heavily on their own skills and
knowledge of life-sustaining methods to survive on the integrated battlefield.
This publication outlines both self-aid and aid to other service members
(buddy aid). More importantly, it emphasizes prompt and effective action in
sustaining life and preventing or minimizing further suffering and disability.
First aid is the emergency care given to the sick, injured, or wounded before
being treated by medical personnel. The term first aid can be defined as
“urgent and immediate lifesaving and other measures, which can be
performed for casualties by nonmedical personnel when medical personnel
are not immediately available.” Nonmedical service members have received
basic first aid training and should remain skilled in the correct procedures for
giving first aid. This manual is directed to all service members. The
procedures discussed apply to all types of casualties and the measures
described are for use by both male and female service members.




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