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Contents:

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
PART I OVERVIEW
1 Occupationalhazards and risks:Theproblems and the ILOresponse. . . 3
An unacceptable situation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Variationsin performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Economic sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Sizes of enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Groups at particularrisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Major OSH instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2 Key principlesin occupationalsafety and health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Core OSH principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Rights and duties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Workers’rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Employers’responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Governments’ duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
PART II NATIONAL FRAMEWORK DESIGN AND
IMPLEMENTATION
3 Generalframework for occupationalsafety and health. . . . . . . . . . . . 25
xi
CONTENTS
Xpress text - Prelims (pp.i-xiv):Intro-CH1 (p.1-40) 27/06/2008 15:14 Page xi4 National policy on occupationalsafety and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
General aims and principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Policy formulation and review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Policy instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
National laws, labour codes and regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Role and obligations ofthe competent authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Policy coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Education and training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5 Nationalsystem for occupationalsafety and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6 National programmesfor occupationalsafety and health . . . . . . . . . . 41
A national profile on occupationalsafety and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7 Occupationalsafety and health policy within the enterprise. . . . . . . . 45
Generalframework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Employers’responsibilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Workers’ duties and rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Safety and health committees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
8 Management of occupationalsafety and health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Management commitment and resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Workers’ participation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Organizational aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Setting priorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Planning and development activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
The place of OSH managementin the enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Performance measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
The OSH management cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
PART III OPERATIONAL MEASURES
9 Legislation, enforcement and collective agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Labourinspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Collective bargaining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
10 Occupational health surveillance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Surveillance ofthe working environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety
xii
Xpress text - Prelims (pp.i-xiv):Intro-CH1 (p.1-40) 27/06/2008 15:14 Page xiiGeneralframework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Monitoring of exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Occupational exposure limits (OELs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Record-keeping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Surveillance of workers’ health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Generalframework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Medical examinations, health assessments and biologicaltests. . . 73
Sickness absence monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Reporting of occupational accidents, injuries and diseases. . . . . . 76
Ethical and legal issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
11 Occupational health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Primary health care approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
First aid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Curative health services and rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Special occupational health needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Cooperation and coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
12 HIV/AIDS and the world of work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Health services and HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Capacity building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Training for managers,supervisors and personnel officers . . . . . . 95
Training for peer educators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Training for workers’representatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Training forsafety and health officers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Training forfactory/labourinspectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Treatment, care and support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Voluntary counselling and testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Disclosure and confidentiality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Job security and promotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Contents
xiii
Xpress text - Prelims (pp.i-xiv):Intro-CH1 (p.1-40) 27/06/2008 15:14 Page xiiiTerms and conditions of work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Reasonable accommodation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Worker assistance programmes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Social protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . 102
13 Preventive and protective measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Engineering control and housekeeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Work practices and organizational methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Personal protective equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Technological change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Protection ofthe general environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
14 Health promotion, education and training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Promotion of occupationalsafety and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Training and information atthe national level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Training and information atthe enterprise level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Training methods and materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
International chemical hazard communication tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs). . . . . . . . . . . 117
The Globally Harmonized System forthe Classification
and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
The International Chemical Control Toolkit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
ANNEXES
I Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
II RelevantILO OSH instruments –Ratifications and status. . . . . . . . . . 129
III Excerptsfrom major OSH international labourstandards . . . . . . . . . . 134
IV Model outline forthe preparation of a national profile on OSH . . . . . 164
V A checklistfor employers writing a safety policy statement. . . . . . . . . 171
VI A checklistfor planning and implementing a workplace policy on
HIV/AIDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
VII Hierarchy of controls applied to risk of blood-borne pathogen
exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety
xiv
Xpress text - Prelims (pp.i-xiv):Intro-CH1 (p.1-40) 27/06/2008 15:14 Page xivVIII Hazard categories defined in the Globally Harmonized System
forthe Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) . . . . . . . . . . . 178
IX The ILO’s Programme on Safety, Health and the Environment
(SafeWork) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
X Selected sources ofreliable OSH information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Boxes
1 The ILO’s mandate on occupationalsafety and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
2 The burden and cost of occupational accidents and diseasesin
the United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 Scope and purpose of OSH standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4 MajorILO instruments concerning occupationalsafety and health
in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5 Examples ofILO instruments concerning specific risks and substances 13
6 Examples ofILO instruments concerning safety and health in
specific branches of economic activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7 Examples ofrecentILO codes of practice on occupationalsafety
and health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8 Safety and health at work – A human right. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9 JointILO/WHO Committee’s definition of occupational health . . . . . 22
10 Key features of a national policy on occupationalsafety and health . . . . 28
11 Tripartite formulation of a national OSH policy in Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
12 Indonesian national OSH policy and strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
13 Hierarchy of preventive and protective measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
14 Managementresponsibilitiesin OSH training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
15 Cooperation between inspectors and workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
16 Some problems oflabourinspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
17 Surveillance, work and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
18 Risk assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
19 Aims of a monitoring strategy for air pollutants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
20 Responsibilities ofstaffinvolved in the surveillance ofthe
working environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
21 Some benefits of good record-keeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Contents
xv
Xpress text - Prelims (pp.i-xiv):Intro-CH1 (p.1-40) 27/06/2008 15:14 Page xv22 Conditions governing workers’ health surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
23 Conceptsin occupational health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
24 Functions of an occupational health service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
25 ILO standards particularly relevantto HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
26 Summary of key principlesin the ILO code of practice on
HIV/AIDS and the world of work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
27 Duties of employers when workers are exposed to occupational
hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
28 Examples of GHS chemical hazard pictograms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Figures
1 How the core OSH standardsrelate to ILO standards on other
issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2 National OSH system modelled from provisionsin ILO OSH
instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3 The OSH management cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
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