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Eng Course- BasicHuman Values: Theory,Methods, and Applications- Download Free PDF


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Introduction to the Values Theory
When we think of our values, we think of what isimportant to usin our lives(e.g.,security,
independence, wisdom, success, kindness, pleasure). Each of us holds numerous values with
varying degrees of importance. A particular value may be very important to one person, but
unimportant to another. Consensus regarding the most useful way to conceptualize basic
values has emerged gradually since the 1950’s. We can summarize the main features of the
conception of basic values implicit in the writings of many theorists and researchers
2
as
follows:
• Values are beliefs. But they are beliefstied inextricably to emotion, not objective, cold
ideas.
• Values are a motivational construct. They refer to the desirable goals people strive to
attain.
• Values transcend specific actions and situations. They are abstract goals. The abstract
nature of values distinguishes them from concepts like norms and attitudes, which
usually referto specific actions, objects, orsituations.
• Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. That is,
valuesserve asstandards or criteria.
• Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an
ordered system of value prioritiesthat characterize them asindividuals. This hierarchical
feature of values also distinguishesthemfromnorms and attitudes.
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